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Commonly Confused Words

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    افتراضي Commonly Confused Words

    (The topic has been copied from an educational site )
    This subject is useful because it enlarges your information about the English words I hope it will not be dull . I have read it and I like to share it with you .

    Commonly Confused Words


    These are some of the pairs of words that are most often confused with each other.

    DO NOT CONFUSE
    adoptive with adopted: children are adopted, but parents are adoptive.

    adverse, `unfavourable, bad', with averse, which means `strongly disliking or opposed to', as in I am not averse to helping out.

    affect and effect: affect means `make a difference to', whereas effect means `a result' or `bring about (a result)'.

    ambiguous with ambivalent: ambiguous primarily means `having more than one meaning, open to different interpretations', while ambivalent means `having mixed feelings'.

    amoral with immoral: amoral means `not concerned with morality', while immoral means `not conforming to accepted standards of morality'.

    appraise with apprise: appraise means `assess', while apprise means `inform'.

    augur, `be a sign of (a likely outcome)', with auger (a tool used for boring).

    censure with censor: censure means `express strong disapproval of', whereas censor means `suppress unacceptable parts of (a book, film, etc.)'.

    climactic, `forming a climax', with climatic, which means `relating to climate'.

    complacent, `smug and self-satisfied', with complaisant, which means `willing to please'.

    complement, `a thing that enhances something by contributing extra features', with compliment, which means `an expression of praise' or `politely congratulate'.

    continuous and continual: continuous primarily means `without interruption', and can refer to space as well as time, as in the cliffs form a continuous line along the coast; continual, on the other hand, typically means `happening frequently, with intervals between', as in the bus service has been disrupted by continual breakdowns.

    council, an administrative or advisory body, with counsel, advice or guidance.

    councillor with counsellor: a councillor is a member of a council, whereas a counsellor is someone who gives guidance on personal or psychological problems.

    credible with creditable: credible means `believable, convincing', whereas creditable means `deserving acknowledgement and praise'.

    definite (`certain, sure') with definitive, which means `decisive and with authority'.

    defuse, `remove the fuse from (an explosive device)' or `reduce the danger or tension in (a difficult situation)', with diffuse, which means `spread over a wide area'.

    desert (a waterless area) with dessert (the sweet course)!

    discreet, `careful not to attract attention or give offence', with discrete, which means `separate, distinct'.

    draft and draught. In British English draft means `a preliminary version' or `an order to pay a sum', whereas a draught is a current of air or an act of drinking; in North American English the spelling draft is used for all senses. The verb is usually spelled draft.

    draw, which is primarily a verb, with drawer meaning `sliding storage compartment'.

    egoism and egotism: it is egotism, not egoism, that means `excessive conceit or self-absorption'; egoism is a less common and more technical word, for an ethical theory that treats self-interest as the foundation of morality.

    envelop with envelope: envelop without an e at the end means `wrap up, cover, or surround completely', whereas an envelope with an e is a paper container used to enclose a letter or document.

    exceptionable (`open to objection; causing disapproval or offence') with exceptional (`not typical' or `unusually good').

    fawn with faun: a fawn is a young deer, and a light brown colour; a faun is a Roman deity that is part man, part goat.

    flaunt with flout; flaunt means `display ostentatiously', while flout means `openly disregard (a rule)'.

    flounder with founder: flounder generally means `have trouble doing or understanding something, be confused', while founder means `fail or come to nothing'.

    forego and forgo: forego means `precede', but is also a less common spelling for forgo, `go without`.

    grisly with grizzly, as in grizzly bear: grisly means `causing horror or revulsion', whereas grizzly is from the same root as grizzled and refers to the bear's white-tipped fur.

    hoard with horde: a hoard is a store of something valuable; horde is a disparaging term for a large group of people.

    imply and infer. Imply is used with a speaker as its subject, as in he implied that the General was a traitor, and indicates that the speaker is suggesting something though not making an explicit statement. Infer is used in sentences such as we inferred from his words that the General was a traitor, and indicates that something in the speaker's words enabled the listeners to deduce that the man was a traitor.

    the possessive its (as in turn the camera on its side) with the contraction it's (short for either it is or it has, as in it's my fault; it's been a hot day).

    loath (`reluctant; unwilling') with loathe, `dislike greatly'.

    loose with lose: as a verb loose means `unfasten or set free', while lose means `cease to have' or `become unable to find'.

    luxuriant, `rich and profuse in growth', with luxurious, which means `characterized by luxury; very comfortable and extravagant'.

    marital, `of marriage', with martial, `of war'!

    militate, which is used in the form militate against to mean `be an important factor in preventing', with mitigate, which means `make (something bad) less severe'.

    naturism (nudism) and naturist (a nudist) with naturalism and naturalist: naturalism is an artistic or literary approach or style; a naturalist is an expert in natural history, or an exponent of naturalism.

    officious, `asserting authority or interfering in an annoyingly domineering way', with official, which means `relating to an authority or public body' and `having the approval or authorization of such a body'.

    ordinance, `an authoritative order', with ordnance, which means `guns' or `munitions'.

    palate and palette: the palate is the roof of the mouth; a palette, on the other hand, is an artist's board for mixing colours.


    pedal and peddle. Pedal is a noun denoting a foot-operated lever; as a verb it means `move by means of pedals'. Peddle is a verb meaning `sell (goods)'. The associated noun from pedal is pedaller (US pedaler), and the noun from peddle is pedlar or peddler.

    perquisite and prerequisite: a perquisite is a special right or privilege enjoyed as a result of one's position; prerequisite is something that is required as a prior condition for something else; prerequisite can also be an adjective, meaning `required as a prior condition'.

    perspicuous, `expressing things clearly', with perspicacious, which means `having a ready understanding of things'.

    principal, `first in order of importance; main', with principle, which is a noun meaning chiefly `a basis of a system of thought or belief'.

    proscribe with prescribe: proscribe is a rather formal word meaning `condemn or forbid', whereas prescribe means either `issue a medical prescription' or `recommend with authority'.

    regretful, `feeling or showing regret', with regrettable, which means `giving rise to regret; undesirable'.

    shear, `cut the wool off (a sheep)', with sheer, which as a verb means `swerve or change course quickly' or `avoid an unpleasant topic', and as an adjective means `nothing but; absolute', `perpendicular', or `(of a fabric) very thin'.

    stationary and stationery: stationary is an adjective with the sense `not moving or changing', whereas stationery is a noun meaning `paper and other writing materials'.

    story and storey: a story is a tale or account, while a storey is a floor of a building. In North America the spelling story is sometimes used for storey.

    titillate and titivate: titillate means `excite', whereas titivate means `adorn or smarten up'.

    tortuous, `full of twists and turns' or `excessively lengthy and complex', with torturous, which means `characterized by pain or suffering'.

    turbid and turgid: turbid is generally used in reference to a liquid and means `cloudy or opaque'; turgid tends to mean `tediously pompous' or, in reference to a river, `swollen, overflowing'.

    unexceptionable, `that cannot be taken exception to, inoffensive', with unexceptional, `not exceptional; ordinary'.

    unsociable with unsocial and antisocial: unsociable means `not enjoying the company of or engaging in activities with others'; unsocial usually means `socially inconvenient' and typically refers to the ساعة of work of a job; antisocial means `contrary to accepted social customs and therefore annoying'.

    venal (`susceptible to bribery; corruptible') with venial, which is used in Christian theology in reference to sin (a venial sin, unlike a mortal sin, is not regarded as depriving the soul of divine grace).

    who's with whose; who's is a contraction of who is or who has, while whose is used in questions such as whose is this? and whose turn is it?

    wreath and wreathe: wreath with no e at the end means `arrangement of flowers', while wreathe with an e is a verb meaning `envelop, surround, or encircle'.

    your with you're; you're is a contraction of you are, while your is a possessive determiner used in phrases such as your turn.

    Some comments have to be made.....

    اللهم إنا نسألك من خيرك ....خيرك الذى لا يؤتيه غيرك

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    افتراضي

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